of Stone Terms*
references are listed at the end of this glossary.
abrasive finish A flat and nonreflective
acid wash A treatment applied to the
face of a stone to achieve a texture or finish that is distressed. Chemical
treatments are more effective when applied to calcareous stones
than to siliceous stone types.
alkaline Pertains to a highly basic,
as opposed to acidic, substance; for example, hydrogen or carbonate of
sodium or potassium.
anchor A metal fastener used for securing
dimension stone to a structure.
anchorage The means by which slabs
are attached to a self-supporting structure.
antique finish A finish that replicates
rusticated or distressed textures.
adhered Secured and supported by adhesion
of an approved bonding material over an approved backing; is used in reference
to stone veneer.
adoquin A volcanic, quartz-based stone
containing a variety of colored aggregates and pumice in a quartz matrix.
Quarried in Mexico.
alabaster A fine-grained and translucent
variety of gypsum, generally white in color. May be cut and carved easily
with a knife or aging process.
apron A trim piece under a projectingstone
top, stool, etc.
arch The curved or pointed construction
over a doorway or opening. Arch shapes range from flat to semicircular
or semi- elliptical to acutely pointed.
back-buttering The process of slathering
the back of a stone tile with thinset material in order to ensure proper
mortar coverage. This prevents hollow areas and subsequent future cracking
of tiles. Also helpful to ensure a level installation.
The top or bottom of a joint, natural bed; surface of stone parallel to
bed joint A horizontal joint between
stones, usually filled with mortar, lead, or sealant.
belt course A continuous horizontal
course, marking a division in the wall plane.
backsplash The area located between
the countertop and lower cabinet. Normally 16- 18 inches in height.
baluster A short post or vertical
member in a series that supports a railing or coping, thus forming a balustrade.
May be curved or straight.
base The bottom course of a stone
wall, or the vertical first member above grade of a finished floor. bevel
A sloped surface contiguous with a vertical or horizontal surface.
bleed Staining caused by corrosive metals, oil-based putties,
mastics, caulking, or sealing compounds.
bluestone A fine- to medium-grain,
metamorphic, quartz-based stone of the U.S. Appalachian Plateau and other
regions of the world.
Overlapping of joints in successive courses. 2. To stick or adhere.
book match pattern A layout in pairs
of all stone elements to confirm that the design matches.
bowing A warping or curving of the
brownstone A trade term applied to
ferruginous dark brown and reddish-brown askosic quartz-based stone extensively
used for construction in the U.S. during the 19th century. Stone for New
York City's noted "brownstone fronts" came from the Connecticut
Valley in Massachusetts, southeastern Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.
calcite A crystalline variety of limestone
containing not more than 5% magnesium carbonate.
calibration The first step in the
finishing process of a stone tile. Coarse abrasives pads are mounted to
the bottom of rotating wheels that under extreme pressure and rotation
speed are applied to the face of the stone. This process grinds the stone
to a uniform and
consistent thickness of ±1 mm tolerance, which is crucial for the
installation of tile in a thin-set application. Calibration is applicable
only to dense stones that can take a honed or polished finish, such as
limestone, marble, and
Obtained by brushing a stone with a coarse rotary-type wire brush.
bullnose Convex rounding of a stone
member, such as a stair tread.
Placing mortar on stone units with a trowel before setting them into position.
butt joint An external corner formed
by two stone panels with one head.
The culminating stone at the top of a column or pilaster, often richly
a joint by sealing with an elastic, adhesive compound.
To cut away the edge where two surfaces meet in an external angle, leaving
a bevel at the junction.
natural seam are referred to as natural
cleft. These types of stones were formed as a result of metamorphic foliation.
cobblestone A dimension stone large enough for use in paving.
A term commonly used to describe paving blocks, usually granite, and generally
cut to rectangular shapes.
A vertical support, usually consisting of a base, shaft, and capital.
composite A construction unit in which
stone that is to be exposed in the final use is permanently bonded or
jointed to other material, which maybe stone or manufactured material,
that will be concealed.
cladding Non-load-bearing stone veneer
used as the facing material in exterior wall construction.
chiseled edge A process of mechanically
chipping the tile edge, thus giving the stone a rustic, aged appearance.
Company or person that erects and installs fabricated dimension stone.
control joint A joint that allows
for dimensional changes of different parts of a structure due to shrinkage,
expansion, variations in temperature, or other causes. Its purpose is
to prevent development of high stresses in the structure.
coping A flat stone used as a cap
on freestanding walls.
A stone forming a part of a corner or angle in a wall.
cornice Any projecting ornamental
molding that crowns or finishes the top of a building or wall.
course A horizontal range of stone
units the length of a wall.
cove base A concave stone molding.
cove molding A concave molding,
cramp A U-shaped metal anchor used
to hold two adjacent units of stone together.
cross-cut The process of cutting the
initial block of stone parallel to the natural bedding plane. The effect
is a mottled or cloudlike appearance.
crowfoot (stylolite) Also known as
a stylolite, a dark grey or black zigzag mark occurring in stone. It usually
does not affect the structural soundness of the stone.
cubic stone Dimension units more than
2 inches thick.
cultured marble An artificial, manmade
product resembling marble.
curbing Slabs or blocks of stone dentil
course Mold course immediately below the cornice, having on one of its
members small, uniformly spaced blocks referred to as "dentils."
time required for the thin-set below the tile to become hard and set.
cushion A resilient pad placed between
adjoining stone units and other materials to absorb or counteract severe
cut stone Finished, dimensioned stone
ready to set in place.
Block projections on an entablature.
Finish produced by sawing with diamond-toothed circular or gang saw.
die A covering layer of interior stone
from wall to ceiling.
dimension stone A natural building
stone that has been cut and finished to specifications.
dolomite A crystalline variety of
limestone containing in excess of 40 percent magnesium carbonate as the
dovetail slot A continuous groove
with a trapezoid section esembling a dove's tail. Used to hold support
rods in the back of the
dowel A short piece of nonferrous
metal or dressing The shaping and squaring of blocks for storage and shipment.
drip A recess cut into the underside
of projecting stone to divert and prevent water from running down the
face of a wall or other surface of which it is a part.
dry seam An unhealed fracture in stone
which may be a plane of weakness.
dual finish Two finishes, such as
thermal and polished, on one piece of stone.
eased edge When referring to a slab
material, the square edge profile normally has softened edges as opposed
to sharp square edges for added safety.
eaves The underside of a sloping roof
that entasis The curve resulting from the gradual diminishing of the diameter
upper two-thirds of a column.
epoxy resin A flexible, usually thermal-
setting resin made by the polymerization of an epoxide; used as an adhesive.
erection The process of setting vertical dimension stone into
etched A decorative surface pattern
created by a variety of methods, most often with abrasive chemicals or
expansion anchor or bolt A socket
that grips a drilled hole in stone by expanding as the bolt is screwed
expansion-contraction joint A joint
between stone units designed to expand or contract with temperature change
or efflorescence A salt deposit, usually in the form of a white powder
residue, that forms
on the surface of stone, brick, or mortar. It is caused by alkalies leached
from the masonry and carried to the surface by moisture.
elevation A drawing of the vertical
faces and elements of a structure, either interior or exterior.
engineered stone A manmade product
composed of a blend of natural minerals and manmade agents (such as polyester,
epoxy, and other such ingredients). This product can give the appearance
of a "stonelike" surface, but it does not possess the
characteristics of a natural stone. Its range of use is limited.
entablature A composite beam member
carried by columns and made up of an exposed face The visible side of
any stone element.
fabricated Used in reference to dimension
stone, it means manufactured and ready for installation.
face The exposed surface of stone
on a structure.
fascia Any relatively narrow, flat,
horizontal structural element, such as the part covering the joint between
the top of a wall and the
fieldstone Rough, irregularly shaped
pieces of stone, used for various building applications such as freestanding
veneers, walkways, and garden bed linings.
filler strip See backing rod.
filling A trade expression used to
filling of natural voids in stone units with cements or synthetic resins
and similar materials.
fines The powder, dust, silt-sized or sand-sized material resulting
from processing, usually crushing, of stone.
finish Final surface applied to the
face of dimension stone during fabrication.
fissure A hairline opening in the face of stone demonstrating
stones natural characteristics; a lineal or non-directional void in the
face and crystalline structure of stone that typically is very thin and
irregular. See: Dry Seam.
flagstone Thin slabs of stone used
for paving surfaces such as walks, driveways, and patios. They are generally
gauged or gauging A grinding process to make all pieces of material to
be used together the same thickness.
glass seam Vein fillings of coarsely
crystalline calcite, which do not necessarily decrease the strength of
The main direction of the mineral composition and arrangement in stone;
it is also the easiest direction of cleavage.
A very small particle of rock, such as a sand grain.
granite A very hard, crystalline,
igneous rock, gray to pink in color, composed of feldspar, quartz, and
lesser amounts of dark
ferromagnesium materials. Gneiss and black "granites" are similar
to true granites in structure and texture, but are composed of
different minerals. Commercial and scientific definitions of the granite
group are explained in detail in ASTM C119.
but thin slabs of other stones may also be used.
flamed finish See thermal finish.
fleuri cut To cut quarried marble
or stone parallel to the natural bedding plane.
fluting Shallow, concave, parallel grooves running vertically
on the shaft of a column, pilaster, or other surface.
frieze 1. A decorated band along the
upper part of an interior wall. 2. The middle member of the entablature,
located above the
architrave and below the cornice.
gang saw A mechanical device, also
known as a "frame saw," used to cut stone blocks to slabs of
greenstone A metamorphic rock, typically
with poorly defined granularity, ranging in color from medium-green or
to black. Refer to greenstone group in ASTM C119.
grout Mortar used to fill joints.
guide specification A recommended specification
for the finishing and installation of dimension stone.
guillotine cut Cutting a stone tile, most
often slate, by the guillotine method offers a ragged and chipped edge.
hand or machine pitch-faced (rock-faced) ashlar
A rustic finish for
veneer stone created by chiseling the stone face, usually with a hammer.
head The exposed surface of the jointed
end of any given piece of stone with a gaugeddimension not more than the
thickness of the material specified. Also known as "return head."
heat cement A thick, creamy mixture
made of pure cement and water that is used to strengthen the bond between
a stone and a setting bed.
hone finish A satin-smooth surface
finish with little or no gloss, recommended for commercial floors.
igneous Any of the various volcanic
rocks, solidified after the molten state, such as granite.
ILI (Indiana Limestone Institute)
A trade organization established for the dissemination of information
on limestone standards, recommended practices, grades, colors, finishes,
and all technical data required for specifying, detailing, fabricating,
keystone The central stone of an arch, sometimes sculpted or otherwise
lamination The gluing of two pieces of stone together to produce
an edge that can be shaped to create an aesthetic appearance for
lewis bolt A bolt with a large, tapered
head, fixed into stone or masonry, and sometimes used as a permanent support.
lewis pin A pin (3/8" or 1/2")
usually with an eye at the upper end. It is used in pairs to lift cubic
stones for installation.
limestone A sedimentary rock composed
primarily of calcite or dolomite. The varieties of limestone used as dimension
usually well consolidated and exhibit a minimum of graining or bedding
direction. See definition of limestone group in ASTM
Applying a chemical containing stain inhibitors that penetrates below
the surface of the stone.
incise To cut inwardly or engrave,
as in an inscription.
joint A space between installed stone
units or between a dimension stone and the adjoining material. jointing
scheme Architectural drawing detailing dimensions, location, and configuration
of stone units and joints as related to structure.
kerf A slot cut into the edge of a
stone with a saw blade for insertion of anchors.
liners Structurally sound sections
of stone cemented and doweled to the back of thin stone units to give
greater strength, additional
bearing surface, or to increase joint depth.
lintel A horizontal beam or stone
over the opening of a door or window that carries the weight of the wall
lippage A condition where one edge of a stone is higher than
adjacent edges, giving the finished surface an uneven appearance.
marble A metamorphic crystalline rock composed predominantly
of crystalline grains of calcite, dolomite, or serpentine, and capable
of taking a polish. Commercial and scientific definitions of the marble
group are explained in detail in ASTM C119.
marble (commercial definition) A crystalline
rock, capable of taking a polish, andcomposed of one or more of the minerals
calcite, dolomite, and serpentine. Commercial and scientific definitions
marble group are explained in detail in ASTM C119.
metamorphic rock Rock altered in appearance,
density, crystalline structure, and in some cases, mineral composition,
temperature or intense pressure, or both. Includes slate derived from
shale, quartz-based stone from quartzitic sand, and
true marble from limestone.
MIA (Marble Institute of America)
An international trade association whose membership is composed of producers,
fabricators, ontractors, exporters, importers, distributors, sales agents,
and those who sell products and services to the dimension stone
industry and building owners.
miter The junction of two units at
an angle. The junction line usually bisects on a 45° angle. panes.
Sometimes, it is only an ornamental
NBGQA (National Building Granite Quarries Association)
A trade association whose membership is composed of granite producers
in the United States. Collectively, these companies provide a major portion
of the architectural granite produced in the U.S.
NTCA (National Tile Contractors Association)
A trade association whose active membership consists of contractors in
the United States, with an associate membership of those who supply products
and services to the industry.
natural stone A product of nature.
A stone such as granite, marble, limestone, slate, travertine, or sandstone
that is formed
by nature, and is not artificial or manmade.
niche A recess in an interior or exterior
wall usually for a statue or an urn, and
Also called pattern- cut, refers to standard patterns used throughout
the stone industry that are usually based on multiples of a given height.
Stone that is multiple-cut or pattern-cut is precut to allow typically
for 1/4" to 1/2" joints or beds.
moldings Decorative stone deviating
from a plane surface by projections, curved profiles, recesses or any
mosaic A veneering that is generally
irregular, with no definite pattern. Nearly all stone used in a mosaic
pattern is irregular in
mullion A vertical member that divides
a window or other opening into two or more nonstaining mortar Mortar composed
of materials which individually or collectively do not contain material
that will stain, usually having a very low alkali content.
notch A V-shaped cut made on the edge
or head of a stone.
off fall A remnant, or extra piece,
from a partially cut slab. Off falls are often used for samples or additional
ogee A stone molding with a reverse
curved edge: concave above, convex below.
onyx A translucent, generally layered,
cryptocrystalline calcite with colors in pastel shades, particularly yellow,
tan, and green.
Commercial definitions of onyx are given in ASTM C119 as part of the marble
oolitic limestone A calcite-cemented
cal- careous stone formed of shells and shell fragments, practically noncrystalline
character. It is found in massive deposits located almost entirely in
Lawrence, Monroe, and Owen Counties, Indiana; and in Alabama,
Kansas, and Texas. This limestone is characteristically a freestone, without
cleavage planes, possessing a remarkable uniformity of
composition, texture, and structure. It possesses a high internal elasticity,
adapting itself without damage to extreme temperature
palletizing A system of stacking stone
on wooden pallets. Stone delivered palletized is easily moved and transported
handling equipment. It generally arrives at the job site in better condition
panel A single unit of fabricated
stone veneer. pediment The gable end of a roof in classical architecture.
Located above a
horizontal cornice member, it comprises the raking cornices and the tympanum.
It is typically triangular, but can also be curved
when applied as a decorative element over windows.
pergola Garden structure formed by
two rows of posts or pillars with joists and open framing above, often
covered by climbing
plants and shading a walkway.
pilaster A shallow, engaged pier or
column projecting from a wall, typically decorative.
pillowed A tile finish that features
softly rounded edges, thus giving the tile a pillowed look.
pitched stone A rough stone face or
edge, cut with a pitching chisel.
portico A porch formed by a roof supported
with columns, similar to a temple front.
privacy partition A thin stone panel
between urinals. See urinal screen.
producer Company or person that quarries
and supplies dimension stone to the commercial market.
quarrier Company or person that extracts
natural stone from a quarry.
quarry The location of an operation
where a deposit of stone is extracted from the earth through an open pit
or underground mine.
quarry block Generally, a rectangular
piece of rough stone as it comes from a quarry, frequently dressed (scabbed)
or wire-sawed for shipment.
quartz A silicon dioxide mineral that
quirk-miter joint An external corner formed by two stone panels at an
angle, with meeting edges mitered and with exposed portions finished.
quartz-based stone A stone that may
be either sedimentary in formation (as in sandstone, or metamorphic, as
Definitions of the classes of stone which form the quartz-based stone
group are explained in ASTM C119.
quartzite A metamorphic quartz-based stone formed in exceedingly
hard layers. In some deposits, intrusion of minerals during the formation
process create unusual coloration.
quirk-miter Linear edge work for corner
quoin One of the decorative dressed
stones or bricks used at the corner of a building. Quoins are usually
laid so their faces are alternately large and small.
random slab A trimmed slab with a
width and length that is not preset, but variable within certain limits.
rabbet A groove cut into the surface along an edge so as to
receive another piece similarly cut.
rake An angular cut on the face of
rebated kerf An additional cut that
countersinks a kerf from the back edge of the kerf to the back edge of
another piece of stone
quartz A silicon dioxide mineral that occurs in colorless and transparent
or colored hexagonal crystals or in crystalline masses.
One of the hardest minerals that compose stones such as sandstone, granite,
reglet A narrow, flat, recessed molding,
or a kerf cut to receive flashing.
reinforcement A fabrication technique,
often called "rodding," that refers to the strengthening of
unsound marble and limestone by cementing rods into grooves or channels
cut into the back of the stone unit. Another method of reinforcement is
the lamination of fiberglass to the back of tile units.
relief Carving or embossing raised
above a background plane, as in a bas-relief.
reprise Inside corner of a stone member
with a profile other than a flat plane. resin A chemical product, clear
to translucent, used in some coating processes.
return The right-angle turn of a molding.
reveal The exposed portion of a stone
between its outer face and a window or door set into an opening.
rift The most pronounced direction of splitting or cleavage
of stone. Rift and grain may be obscure, as in some granites, but are
important in both quarrying and processing stone.
rise The height of a stone, generally
used in reference to veneer stone.
rock (pitch) faced Similar to split
faced, except that the face of the stone is pitched to a given line and
plane, producing a bold
appearance rather than the comparatively straight face obtained in split
rodding See reinforcement.
rough sawn A surface finish resulting
from the gang sawing process.
rubble A term applied to dimension stone used chiefly for walls
and foundations, consisting of irregularly squared pieces, partly trimmed
or squared, generally with one split or finished face, and selected and
specified with a size range.
rustication Exterior masonry cut in
large blocks with deeply chamfered joints. Surfaces can be smooth or rough-textured,
and joints and faces can have various treatments.
saddles See thresholds.
sample A piece of dimension stone,
usually 12" x 12", showing the general range of color, markings,
and finish of a given
characterized by thin foliae that are composed predominately of minerals
of thin platy or prismatic habits and whose long dimensions
are oriented in approximately parallel positions along the planes of foliation.
Because of this foliated structure, schists split readily along these
planes and so have a pronounced rock cleavage. The more
common shists are composed of mica-like minerals (such as chlorite) and
generally contain subordinate quartz and/or feldspar of
a comparatively fine-grained texture; all gradations exist between schist
and gneiss (coarsely foliated feldspathic rocks).
sandblasted A matte-textured surface
finish with no gloss, finished by application of a steady flow of sand
and water under pressure.
sandstone See quartz-based stone.
sawed edge A clean-cut edge generally
achieved by cutting with a diamond blade, gang saw, or wire saw.
sawed face A finish obtained from
the process used in producing blocks, slabs, or other units of building
stone. It varies in texture from smooth to rough, and is typically named
for the type of material used in sawing, e.g. diamond sawn, sand sawn,
chat sawn, and shot sawn.
scabbing See dressing.
schist A loose term applying to foliated
metamorphic (recrystallized) rock characterized by thin foliae that are
composed predominately of minerals of thin platy.
scotia A concave molding
sculpture The work of a sculptor cutting a three-dimensional
form from a block of stone.
sealant An elastic adhesive compound used to seal stone veneer
sealing 1. To make a veneer joint watertight with an elastic
adhesive compound. 2. Application of a treatment to retard staining.
sedimentary Rocks formed of sediments
laid down in successive strata or layers. The materials of which they
are formed are
derived from preexisting rocks or the skeletal remains of sea creatures.
serpentine A hydrous magnesium silicate material; generally
dark green in color with markings of white, light green, or black.
Considered commercially as a marble because it can be polished. Definition
of serpentine is given in ASTM C119 under the marble group.
setter An experienced journeyman who installs dimension stone.
setting The trade of installing dimension
simulated stone An artificial manmade product that resembles
slab A lengthwise-cut piece sawn or
split from a quarry block prior to fabrication.
slate A very fine-grained metamorphic rock derived from sedimentary
shale rock. Characterized by an excellent parallel cleavage, and entirely
independent of original bedding, slate may be split easily into
relatively thin slabs. See definition of slate in ASTM C119.
soapstone A massive talc with a "soapy" feel, used
for hearths, tabletops, chemical- resistant laboratory tops, stove facings,
cladding; known for its stainproof characteristics. Classified in ASTM
C119 as part of the greenstone group.
soffit The underside of any architectural
element, such as an arch, beam, lintel, or balcony. etting space The distance
finished face of a stone unit to the face of the backup material.
shim A piece of plastic or other noncorrosive,
nonstaining material used to hold joints to size.
shop drawing A detailed fabrication
and installation drawing showing dimensions and methods of anchorage.
shop ticket Also referred to as a "cutting" or "cut"
ticket, it is generally produced by the stone fabricator or shop for in-house
use and reference. A shop ticket is produced for each differing piece
of stone required for a project and is referenced to shop drawings, which
are used for communicating intent with parties outside of the fabricating
team or shop.
sill The bottom horizontal part of
a window or opening in a structure.
soundness A property of stone used
to describe relative freedom from cracks, faults, voids, and similar imperfections
untreated stone. One of the characteristics encountered in fabrication.
spall A chip or splinter separated from the main mass of a
spandrel 1. The triangular area between an arch and a wall,
or between two arches. Often decorated. 2. In modern high-rise
construction, the blank wall panel between the top of one window and the
bottom of the one above it. Can be made of stone, metal, or
splay split Division of a rock by
split-faced stone Stone on which the
face has been broken to an approximate plane. pot or spotting The mortar
applied to the back of dimension stone veneer to bridge the space between
a stone panel and the backup wall. Used to plumb a wall.
stacked bond Stone that is cut to
one dimension and installed with unbroken vertical and horizontal joints
running the entire length and height of the veneered area.
sticking The butt edge repair of a
broken piece of stone, now generally done with dowels, cements, or epoxies.
The pieces are
"stuck" together; thus "sticking." stool A flat unit
of stone, often referred to as an interior windowsill.
TCA (Tile Council Of America) An organization
of manufacturers serving the ceramic tile industry. Its programs include
promotion of the uses of tile, improvement of product standards and quality,
development of new installation methods and techniques,
and publication of the annual Installation threshold A flat strip of stone
projecting above the floor between the jambs of a door.
Also known as a "saddle."
tile A thin modular stone unit, generally less than ¾"
tolerance Dimensional allowance in
the fabrication process.
translucence The ability of many lighter-colored
marbles to transmit light.
travertine A variety of limestone
that is a precipitate from hot springs. Some varieties of travertine take
a polish and are known
commercially as marble. ASTM C119 classifies travertine in both the limestone
and the marble groupings.
tread A flat stone used as the top
walking surface on steps.
trim The framing or edging of openings
and other features on the interior or exteand publication of the annual
Installation Handbook. Many of the installation techniques detailed in
the handbook can be
used to set stone tile.
template A pattern for a repetitive
marking or fabricating operation.
terrazzo A flooring surface of marble
or granite chips in a cementitious or resinous matrix, which is ground
and finished after
texture Surface quality of stone independent
textured finish A rough surface finish.
thermal finish A surface treatment
applied by intense heat flaming.
thin stone Dimension stone units less
than 2" thick. trim The framing or edging of openings and other features
on the interior or exterior
of a building, including baseboards, picture rails, cornices, and casings.
tumbled finish A weathered, aging
finished created when the stone is tumbled with sand, pebbles, or steel
unit A piece of fabricated cubic or thin dimension stone.
undercut Cut so as to present an overhanging part.
urinal screen A thin stone panel used as a privacy partition
vein A layer, seam, or narrow irregular
body of mineral material different from the surrounding formation. vein
cut A cut into quarried stone perpendicular to the natural bedding plane.
veneer An interior or exterior stone
wall covering layer.
venting See cavity vent.
wainscot An interior veneer of stone
covering the lower portion of an interior wall.
wash The slope on the top of a stone
unit intended to shed water.
water-jet finish A surface treatment
performed by using water under extreme high pressure.
waxing The practice of filling minor
surface imperfections such as voids or sand holes with melted shellac,
cabinetmaker's wax, or certain polyester compounds. In the dimension stone
industry, it does not refer to the application of paste wax to make surfaces
ASTM International. ASTM C119: Standard Terminology Relating to Dimension
Stone. West Conshohocken: ASTM International.
Amrhein, James E., and Michael W. Merrigan. Marble and Stone Slab Veneer.
Los Angeles: Masonry Institute of America, 1986.
Carnella, Enrico. The Architect's Handbook of Marble, Granite and Stone,
Volume I, Technical Guide; New York: Van Nostrand
Chacon, Mark. Architectural Stone: Fabrication, Installation, and Selection.
New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999.
Donaldson, Barry, ed. New Stone Technology, Design and Construction for
Exterior Wall Systems. ASTM Special Technical Publication 996. West Conshohocken:
ASTM International, 1988.
to Granite Care Page
to Topics Page